LAN (Local Area Network) — An interconnection of devices (i.e. a network) that is contained within a limited geographic area (typically a single building). For a typical LAN, all of the network cables or interconnection media is owned and controlled by the organization unlike a WAN (Wide Area Network) where the interconnection media is owned by a third party.
least privilege – a basic security access practice of granting each person or user account with the minimum amount of access rights required to perform their role.
least significant bits – the part of a binary message furthest to the right (for example 1001001), sometimes used as a method to conceal information as an approach in steganography (the concealing of hidden messages).
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) – an open, vendor-neutral, industry standard application protocol used for accessing and maintaining distributed directory information services over an IP network.
link jacking — A potentially unethical practice of redirecting a link to a middle-man or aggregator site or location rather than the original site the link seemed to indicate it was directed towards. For example, a news aggregation service may publish links that seem as if they point to the original source of their posted articles, but when a user discovers those links via search or through social networks, the links redirect back to the aggregation site and not the original source of the article.
List Based Access Control – Associates a list of users and their privileges with each object, such as a file directory or individual file. Each object has a security attribute that identifies its access control list. The list has an entry for each system user with access privileges. This list is implemented differently by each operating system.
logic bomb – a type of malicious software (malware) that only starts to operate when specific conditions are met. For example, if a particular date is reached or if a companion piece of malware is no longer detectable.
Loopback Address – an pseudo address that sends outgoing signals back to the same computer for testing. In a TCP/IP network, the loopback IP address is 127.0.0.1, and pinging this address always returns a reply unless the firewall prevents it.